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A poster showing the rank insignia of officers of various armed forces at the time of the Second World War.
Army Ranks Lowest To Highest
Intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. The military rank system defines dominance, authority, and responsibility in a military hierarchy. It incorporates the principles of exercising power and authority in the military chain of command: the succession of superiors to subordinates through whom command is exercised. The military chain of command builds an important foundation for organized collective action.
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Classification systems have been known for most of military history to be advantageous to military operations, particularly in terms of logistics, command and coordination. As time went on and military operations became larger and more complex, military ranks increased and the ranking systems themselves became more complex.
Rank is not only used to designate leadership, but also to establish salary classification. As the rank increases, so does the pay, but so does the amount of responsibility.
Within modern armed forces, the use of ranks is almost universal. Communist states sometimes abolished ranks (e.g. Soviet Red Army 1918-1935,
One for each of the t “tribes” that had been created with the foundation of democracy. Strategos means “army leader”
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And is usually translated as “general”. Originally these generals worked together with the old polemarchs (“lord of war”) but over time this last figure was absorbed into generalism: each of the generals would rotate as polemarch for a day, and during this day their vote would serve as a tie. switch if necessary.
The generals were equal to each other. There was no hierarchy among them, however, a basic form of democracy was in force: for example, in the battle of Marathon in 490 a. C., the generals determined the battle plan by majority vote. However, particular tasks could be given to individual generals; inevitably there was a regular division of responsibilities.
The rank that was subordinate to a superior chief was a taxiarchos or taxiarhos, something like the modern brigadist. In Sparta, however, the title was “polemarchos”. Below this was the syntagmatarchis, which can be translated as “leader of a regiment” (syntagma) and was therefore like a modern colonel. Below him was the tagmatarchs, an officer in command of a tagma (close to the modern battalion). The rank was roughly equivalent to the legatus of a Roman legion. Next came the lokhagos, an officer leading an infantry unit called a lokhos consisting of about a hundred m, roughly the same as a modern company led by a captain.
A Greek cavalry regiment (hippikon) was called a hipparchy and was commanded by an epihipparch. The unit was divided into two and led by two hipparchos or hipparches, but the Spartan cavalry was led by a hipparmostes. A hippotoxotes was a mounted archer. A Greek cavalry company was led by a tetrarchès or tetrarch.
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The military base in most Greek city-states was composed of ordinary citizens. Heavily armed foot soldiers were called hoplites or hoplites and a hoplomachos was a drill or weapons instructor.
Once Aths became a naval power, the senior commanders of the land armies also had authority over the naval fleets. Under them, each warship was commanded by a trierarchus or trierarch, a word that originally meant “trireme officer” but persisted when other types of vessels were used. Also, as in modern navies, the different tasks associated with handling a ship were delegated to different subordinates. Specifically, the kybernètès was the helmsman, the keleustēs managed the speed of the oar and the trièraulès was the flute that kept the beat of the oar rhythm. After further specialization, the naval strategist was replaced by a nauarchos, a sea officer equivalent to an admiral.
With the rise of Macedonia under Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, the Greek army professionalized, tactics became more sophisticated, and additional levels of classification were developed. The foot soldiers were organized into phalanxes of heavy infantry called Phalangites. These were among the first troops to be drilled, and fought grouped together in a closed rectangular formation, usually eight meters deep, with a leader at the head of each column (or column) and a secondary leader in the middle so that the rear ranks could move towards the sides if more facade was needed.
A tetrarchy was a unit of four files and a tetrarchès or tetrarch was a commander of four files; the dilochia was a double row and a dilochitès was a double row leader; a lochos was a single file and a lochagos was a file leader; a dimoiria was a half row and a dimoirite was a leading half row. Another name for the half token was a hèmilochion with a hèmilochitès being a half token leader.
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However, different types of units were divided differently and thus their leaders had different titles. For example, under a system of numbering by ts, a dekas or dekania was a unit of t headed by a dekarchos, a hekatontarchia was a unit of a hundred headed by a hekatontarchos, and a khiliostys or khiliarchia was a unit of a thousand headed by a khiliarchos .
The cavalry, for which Alexander became most famous (in a military sse), was more varied. There were heavy cavalry and wing (ilè) units, the latter commanded by an ilarchos.
The use of formalized ranks came into widespread use with the Roman legions after the reforms of Marius. Comparisons with modern ranks, however, can only be loose because the command structure of the Roman army was very different from the organizational structure of its modern counterparts, which arose from the mercantile enterprises of the Thirty Years’ War, rather than the writings of the Fourth. -ctura The Roman writer Vegetius and Caesar’s comments on his conquest of Gaul and the civil war.
The military command properly so called was a political office in Rome. A commander needed to be equipped with imperium, a political-religious concept. The king who owned it (the rex sacrorum) was totally forbidden to have it to avoid a return to the monarchy. In the republic, command was limited to consuls or (rarely) praetors, or in cases of necessity to a dictator. The proconsuls, after the establishment of the office, were employed. In Imperial times, each legion was commanded by the emperor, who was technically a consul or proconsul.
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The commander could appoint a deputy, a so-called legate (legatus). The association of “legatus” with “legion” is the popular etymology, as the meaning of legatus is “proxy” or “voy”. Legacies were usually drawn from the Roman state for periods of three years. The political nature of the military high command was reflected here, as the legions were always subordinate to the governor, and only the second and subsequent legions stationed in a province had their own legatus legionis. The real commanders and legates together were, in modern terms, the general officers.
Immediately behind the commander (or his legate) were six military tribunes (tribuni militum), five of whom were young m of equestrian rank and one of whom was a nobleman who was addressing the state. The latter is called tribune laticlavius (tribunus laticlavius) and was second in command. If in modern divisions the deputy commander is a brigadier general, the laticlavian tribune can perhaps be translated with this rank, although he did not command any formation of his own. The other tribunes are called tribuni angusticlavii and are equivalent to staff officers in the two sses of the mandate: of major rank, lieutenant colonel, colonel and with administrative functions. They did not command a formation of their own. The term military tribune is sometimes translated into Glish as “colonel” – most notably by the late classicist Robert Graves in his Claudius novels and his translation of Suetonius’ Twelve Caesars – to avoid confusion with the political “tribunes of the people”; moreover, they should not be confused with the “military tribunes with consular authority”, which in the early republican times could replace the consuls.
The third highest officer in a legion, above the Angusticlav tribunes, was the praefectus castrorum. He too would have held the rank of colonel in modern armies, although he differed greatly from the tribunes in that his position was not part of the more administrative course, but was usually held by former cturions. (Modern armies have a similar distinction on a lower scale, i.e. between commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers.)
The m combatants in the legion were formed into “files,” ranks of m fighting as a unit. Under Marius’ new system, the legions were divided into t cohortes (cohorts) (roughly equivalent to battalions and immediately subordinate to the legion), each composed of three manipulators, each from two cities (a fairly small company in modern terms) , each one. which consists of between 60 and 160 m. Each ctury was led by a cturion (cturion, traditionally translated as captain), who was assisted by a number of junior officers, such as an optio. Cturies were further divided into t
How To Understand Us Military Rank Structure
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